Environment and sustainable development
Energy production and transmission have many kinds of environmental impacts. Some of these are global or extensive in terms of their range of impact, whereas others are regional or local. With respect to the environment, the greatest concerns include the climate change, acidification, reduction in biodiversity, and increased amounts of waste. Production methods, consumption habits and population will determine the future direction of energy use.
The environmental impacts of energy production and transmission have been the focus of attention for a considerable length of time. Corporate social responsibility in the energy sector is also important.
Environmental impacts are reduced, e.g. by improving the cleaning technology and adopting more effective and environmentally friendly methods of energy production. Efficient energy production and use are also important methods of controlling environmental impacts.
Energy production is directed by a number of laws and regulations. The Environmental Protection Act aims, e.g. to prevent environmental pollution, promote sustainable use of natural resources and mitigate climate change. Moreover, it describes the application of the environmental permit and the use of the best available technologies.
The purpose of the Emissions Trading Act is to promote the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective and economic way. The Emissions Trading Act serves to implement the EU Emissions Trading Directive and the emissions trading scheme conforming to the directive.
Construction is subject to the Land Use and Building Act, while the Act on Environmental Impact Assessment Procedure obliges to carry out environmental impact assessments (EIAs) on major projects.
The Water Act directs the use of waters and water construction, and the Waste Act and Decree regulate waste management and utilisation of wastes.