The vision of the Finnish Energy Industries is carbon-neutral electricity and district heating in 2050. According to the vision, direct emissions from electricity and district heat production will be considerably reduced. At the same time, low-emission electricity and district heat are used for reducing the use of fossil fuels in transport, industry and heating. The key guiding factor is the price signal from the emissions trading, encouraging investment in low-carbon production.
Climate change means strengthening of the greenhouse effect, which results in changes in the climate and reflects on nature and the human environment in many different ways. Examples of this include the increase in extreme weather phenomena, such as floods, drought and storms.
The countries of the world are taking up the challenge of climate change by reducing emissions and preparing for climate change. International agreements are a key method in this. Practical emissions reduction measures include improving energy efficiency, using low-emission forms of electricity and heat generation (renewable energy, nuclear power), replacing fossil fuels in transport, industry and heating, and carbon capture and storage. Measures carried out by all countries and actors, as well as a diverse selection of methods, are required in climate change mitigation.
The most significant human-produced greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide. It is produced in all combustion, such as in power plants fired by fossil fuels, in car engines and in burning-over of woodland for cultivation. Other greenhouse gases include methane (CH4), ozone and dinitrous oxide (N20) and many man-made synthetic chemicals, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs and HCFCs), fluorine compounds (HFCs, PFCs and SF6) and bromine compounds (halons, e.g. CF3Br).
Greenhouse gases act in the atmosphere in the same way as glass in a greenhouse, i.e. they let solar radiation through, but they do not let all thermal radiation of the globe to flow out. For this reason, the average global temperature is +15 degrees when without the greenhouse effect it would be -18. The greenhouse effect of the atmosphere is a prerequisite for life as we know it. However, human activities have increased the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This reinforces the greenhouse effect and warms the climate. This warming and the resulting climate disruption are called the climate change.